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This has been an enormous project that would not have been possible without the assistance and cooperation of State and Federal Cooperative Extension agents, university professors and instructors, photographers, agronomists, entomologists, specialists at several herbariums, research assistants, C++ programmers, Internet programmers, graphical artists, typists, scanners, editors, and the encouragement of friends. A nice feature about publishing electronically is that we can take as much space as we need to mention all the people involved in the development and fulfillment of this project.

State and Federal Cooperative Extension Service

AgExplorer and AgWiki would not have been possible without the tremendous assistance of State and Federal Cooperative Extension personnel. Their work is felt in youth and farmer assistance programs both in the field and in the classroom.


Certification: We give special thanks to several organizations who have been helpful in the development of the certification sections in this Edition.


The American Society of Agronomy's International Certified Crop Advisor (ASA/ICCA) program has strongly encouraged this "Certification Edition." Special thanks to Perry Peterson former Chairman of the Board for the ICCA for his encouragement and to Tom Hall and Luther Smith who worked to see that this "Certification Edition" contains all available accredited CEU courses.

The North West CCA program, managed by Far West Fertilizer and Chemical Association, has been a great help in promoting AgExplorer and AgWiki and encouraging its development to assist their members in meeting their CEU requirements. Scott McKinnie and Pete Fretwell caught a clear vision of how this tool can help their members. We appreciate their work and the establishment of a curriculum committee for approving future CEUs.


The National Alliance of Independent Crop Consultants (NAICC) has been helpful in accrediting the CEU courses for their members. In particular we would like to thank Allison Jones and the Board of Directors for their prompt approval and assistance in providing this material to their members.


The American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers (ASFMRA) has assisted in our outreach to the farm management community. We appreciate the efforts of Nancy Hardiman to make these courses available to Accredited Farm Managers and Accredited Crop Consultants.


We thank the California Department of Pesticide Regulation for approving AgExplorer and AgWiki for their Pest Control Advisor (PCA) program. Muffett Wilkerson and Sandy Ratliff were very helpful in walking us through the approval process and the first self-study CEUs available to PCAs.


The National FFA program, and in particular Jim Armbruster, Director of Educational Materials, has been very helpful. Assistance from Bernie Staller, Chief Executive Officer and Jim Burnhardt helped us in providing AgExplorer and AgWiki to FFA advisers.

Agronomists and Photographers

Special thanks to our head agronomy research assistant CheyAnne Toner for her tireless work in compiling, editing, and giving guidance to the many agronomists who contributed to this work. Thanks to Howard Schwartz and Mark McMillan of Colorado State University for their cooperation and assistance in acquiring many of the photos in AgExplorer and AgWiki.

Additional photographs were contributed by the following listed in no particular order:

Robert L. Mahler, University of Idaho

Fred Muehlbauer, Washington State University

John Fellman, Washington State University

LeRoy Luft, University of Idaho

Bob McReynolds, University of Oregon

Jonathan Crane, University of Florida

Dan Cantliffe, University of Florida

C.L. Chia, University of Hawaii

C.S. Vavrina, University of Florida

D.N. Maynard, University of Florida

Dr. Lacasio, University of Florida

G.L. Hochmuth, University of Florida

Richard P. Marini, Virgina Tech

Tim Crocker, University of Florida

Roslyn Foster, University of Georgia Athens

M.E. Ferree, University of Georgia Athens

Paul F. Bertrand, University of Georgia Athens

Gerard W. Krewer, University of Georgia Athens

John R. Meyer, North Carolina State University

Antonius B. Baudoin, Virginia Tech

Jeffrey Granett, University of California Davis

Jim Wolpert, University of California Davis

Ed Webber, University of California Davis

Tony Wolf, University of California Davis

Kevin McPhee, USDA-ARS, Pullman WA

Richard Garber, Calif. Planting Cotton Seed Dist.

Deborah A. Samac, USDA-ARS

John Rupe, University of Arkansas

Dick Bassett, Shaffer, CA

Roger T. Chetelat, University of California Davis

Dr. Fred I. Frosheiser, USDA-ARS

Anson Eaglin, USDA Photography

Stanley A. Harrison, USDA Photography

Anita Daniels, ARS Photo Unit

Brenda Redding, USDA-ARS

Edwin T. Bingham, University of Wisconsin

Oran B. Hesterman, Michigan State University

Hussein S. Hussein, University of Nevada

Dr. Hank Mayland, Soil, Water & Plant Research Center, Kimberly, ID

David Hanoway, Oregan State University

Susan K. Brown, N.Y. State Ag Experiment Station

H.A. Lamey, North Dakota State University

P.E. McClean, North Dakota State University

J.E. Wyatt, W. Tennessee Experiment Station

L.G. Campbell, North Dakota State University

Allan W. Cattanach, North Dakota State University

Jaleen Dodds, University of California Riverside

Louise Ferguson, University of California Davis

W.J. Bourgeois, Louisiana State University

John Merge, University of California Riverside

Carol J. Lovatt, University of California Riverside

Vince E. Rubatzky, University of California Riverside

Laurence D. Chandler, USDA-ARS, Northern Grain Insects Research

J.G. Coors, University of Wisconsin

L.D. Dunkle, Purdue University

R.L. Nicholson, Purdue University

P.R. Thomison, Ohio State University

Dr. Robert Hutmacher, University of California Davis

W.D. Caldwell, Louisiana State University

Peggy S. Thaxton, Texas A&M University

Roy G. Cantrell, New Mexico State University

Carl G. Anderson, Texas A&M University

Thomas J. Burr, N.Y. State Ag Experiment Station

Bruce I. Reisch, N.Y. State Ag Experiment Station

Nick K. Dokoozlian, University of California Davis

Dr. Ralph B. Clark, USDA-ARS, AFSRC

Kevin McPhee, Washington State University

R. Scott Johnson, University of California

S.M. Southwick, University of California Davis

W.W. Collins, North Carolina State University

N.C. Gudmestad, North Dakota State University

Dennis A. Johnson, Washington State University

Walt Stevenson, University of Wisconsin

Eva B. Ramin, IRRI, Phillipines

J.E. Board, Louisiana State University

Ann E. Dorrance, Ohio State University

Pat Lipson, Ohio State University

Oral Myers, Southern Illinois University

Jim Lemons, Ohio State University

Terry Niblack, University of Missouri

James E. Specht, University of Nevada

Richard Robinson, N.Y. State Ag Experiment Station

Dina A. St. Clair, University of California Davis

John I. Yoder, University of California Davis

Mike Davis, University of California Davis

M.D. Coffey, University of California Riverside

H.D. Ohr, University of California Riverside

J.D. Miller, USDA-ARS

R.L. Jarret, USDA-ARS

Richard E. Litz, Trop. Research & Education Center, U. of Florida

R.C. Ploetz, Trop. Research & Education Center, U. of Florida

Ronny Duncan, University of Georgia

Myron K. Brakke, USDA-ARS, Lincoln, NE R. James Cook, USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA

Allen S. Heagle, USDA-ARS, Raleigh, NC

James A. Hoffman, USDA-ARS, Logan, UT

K.A. Nishijima, USDA-ARS, Hilo, Hawaii

J.M. Dunleavy, USDA-ARS, Ames, IA

D.I. Edwards, USDA-ARS, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

A.D. Hewings, USDA-ARS, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

S.M. Lim, USDA-ARS, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

G.R. Noel, USDA-ARS, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

A.T. Tschanz, USDA, Hyattsville, MD

Wray Birchfield, USDA, Baton Rouge, LA

R.H. Garber, USDA, U.S. Cotton Research Station

Earl B. Minton, USDA, Stoneville, MS

J.A. Foster, USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Beltsville, Maryland

S.M. Mircetich, USDA-ARS, Davis, California

P.L. Pusey, USDA-ARS, Wenatchee, Washington

S.S. Miller, USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, West Virginia

A.P. Nyczepir, USDA-ARS, Byron, Georgia

D.J. Phillips, USDA-ARS, Fresno, California

B.D. Bruton, USDA-ARS, Lane, Oklahoma

L.D. Chandler, USDA-ARS, Brookings, South Dakota

K.D. Elsey, USDA-ARS, Charleston, South Carolina

J.D. McCreight, USDA-ARS, Salinas, California

S.D. Pair, USDA-ARS, Lane, Oklahoma

R.A. Reinert, USDA-ARS, Raleigh, North Carolina

J.E. Staub, USDA-ARS, Madison, Wisconsin

J.A. Thies, USDA-ARS, Charleston, South Carolina

C.E. Thomas, USDA-ARS, Charleston, South Carolina

Donald K. Barnes, USDA-ARS, St. Paul, MN

Gerald D. Griffin, USDA-ARS, Logan, UT

Kenneth T. Leath, USDA-ARS, University Park, PA

Carroll P. Vance, USDA-ARS, St. Paul, MN

W.M. Bugbee, USDA, Fargo, ND

J.E. Duffus, USDA-ARS, Salinas, CA

E.G. Ruppel, USDA Crops Lab, Fort Collins, CO

C.L. Schneider USDA, East Lansing, MI

E.E. Schweizer, USDA Crops Lab, Fort Collins, CO

A.E. Steele, USDA-ARS, Salinas, CA

E.D. Whitney, USDA-ARS, Salinas, CA

V.D. Damsteegt, USDA-ARS, Frederick, MD

R.O. Hampton, USDA, Corvallis, OR

M.J. Silbernagel, USDA, Prosser, WA

J.R. Stavely, USDA, Beltsville, MD

H.E. Waterworth, USDA, Glenn Dale, MD

H.L. Warren, USDA-ARS, West Lafayette, IN

N. Zummo, USDA-ARS, Mississippi State, MS

R.O. Hampton, USDA-ARS, Corvallis, OR

J.M. Kraft, USDA-ARS, Prosser, WA

M.F. Finney, USDA, Beltsville, MD

J.L. Maas, USDA, Beltsville, MD

R.F. Korcak, USDA, Beltsville, MD

C.L. Parish, USDA, Wenatchee, WA

T. van der Zwet, USDA, Kearneysville, WV

Marlin Brandon, California Rice Experiment Station, Biggs CA

S.V. Thomson, Utah State University

R.J. Cook, USDA, Pullman, WA

J.G. Moseman, USDA, Beltsville, MD

R.G. Timian, USDA, Fargo, ND

Dwain Horrocks, Brigham Young University

Oval Myers Jr., Southern Illinois University

Stanley Jensen, University of Nebraska

Richard A. Fredriksen, Texas A&M University

John Leslie, Kansas State University

Jeffrey F. Pedersen, University of Nebraska

L.D. Dunkle, Purdue University

Bryan Strong, NIMA

Bruce Schaffer, University of Louisiana

Alvin Reeves II, University of Maine

M.R. Hall, University of Georgia

D.R. Evert, University of Georgia

R.C. Frohberg, North Dakota University


Special thanks to Robert Peterson who's retirement from the Smithsonian was a great loss to them and a great blessing to us. He worked to organize the insect taxonomies and descriptions working on the difficult task of making them understandable at the secondary student level. He worked with many other entomologists throughout the United States and Canada in compiling the taxonomies, information, and photo sections. Alan Roe at Utah State University gave us guidance in establishing the original crop pest list which gave us the structure and guidance we needed at the beginning of this project.

Other entomologists and specialists who have contributed to this project are listed as follows in no particular order:

David J. Chitwood, Research Leader, Nematology Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Building 011A, Room 165-B, BARC-West, Beltsville, MD 20705 (Nematoda (Parasitic worms)).

Ronald Ochoa, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Building 046 BARC-West, Beltsville, MD 20705 (Acari (Mites))

Cathy Weeden, Department of Entomology and Biological Control, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (Acari, (Predatory Mites))

Robert W. Carlson, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Building 046, BARC-West, Beltsville, MD 20705 (Coordinated names check)

Manya B. Stoetzel, Research Leader, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Building 046, BARC-West, Beltsville, MD 20705 (Hemiptera - Homoptera (Aphididae)).

Gary L. Miller, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Building 046, BARC-West, Beltsville, MD 20705 (Hemiptera - Homoptera (Aphididae))

Duglass R. Miller, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Building 046, BARC-West, Beltsville, M.D 20705 (Hemiptera - Homoptera (Scales))

Thomas J. Henry, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, ARS, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC-168, Washington, D.C. 20560 (Hemiptera - Heteroptera (true bugs))

Stuart H. McKamey, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, ARS, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC-168, Washington, D.C. 20560 (Hemiptera - Homoptera (Cicadellidae))

Natalia J. Vandenberg, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, ARS, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC-168, Washington, D.C. 20560 (Coleoptera)

Michael E. Schauff, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, ARS, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC-168, Washington, D.C. 20560 (Hymenoptera (parasitic wasps))

Maria Alma Solis, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, ARS, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC-168, Washington, D.C. 20560 (Lepidoptera (Pyralidae))

Michael Pogue, Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, MRC-168, Washington, D.C. 20560 (Lepidoptera (Noctuidae))

Weed Section

The weed section would not have been possible without the assistance of Stan Welsh, at Brigham Young University's Bean Museum Herbarium; Steven Dewey, at Utah State University; and the tireless assistance of Jenae Dixon our in house research weed specialist. Their work was critical to the taxonomies, information, and photos in the weed section. Others who contributed to this section are Sara Webb, Melanie Spencer, and Rebecca Bosworth.

Research Assistants

We have employed several research assistants in the completing of this project. Their effort has made this project possible by summarizing, editing, compiling, scanning, and in general doing things professors find mundain but are critical and essential to the completion of this project. They are Shannon Carlson, Merrill Dibble, Leila Ellsworth, Devri George, Jenae Herbst-Bos, Sara Liechty, Julene McCurry, and Mark Peterson.

Computer Programming

Special thanks to the programmers at Brigham Young University including Jason Dzubak, James S. Rosenvall, and Monte F. Shelle. Their unique skills have given AgExplorer and AgWiki its programming foundation and unique set of search and inter-file-connectivity tools. Their work in fonts will allow AgExplorer and AgWiki to be translated into Spanish, Russian, and even Chinese.

Internet Support

Internet programmers Kristie and Chris Dyne, Trev Harmon, and Tonya Adams have been essential in programming HTML code which facilitates the unique Internet connectivity of AgExplorer and AgWiki.

Graphic Arts

The graphic arts skills of Matt Wier and Dan Hixson gave AgExplorer and AgWiki its simple graphical interface designed with farmers and professors in mind. Special thanks to Bryce Neubert for his design work on the CD and the cover.

Typing and Editing

Many have contributed to this project by their typing and editing skills. Included in that list is Daniel Fox, Gaelynn Kuchar, Marylin Neubert, Nicia Whitaker, and Mary Woodruff

Encouragement and Support

Just a few of the people who gave great encouragement and support to this project are Nannette Wiggins, Jane Mack, Laren Robison, Kim Pickett, Gary Manning, Paul Johnston, Malaquias Flores, and Luis Espinosa.

AgExplorer and AgWiki is furnished under a license agreement. No part of AgExplorer and AgWiki may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose (incidental educational purposes excepted), without the express written permission of The International Farming Institute.